|Is there a paraphilic rape disorder?||Nair M, Friedman R||For mental health professionals who evaluate sex offenders and testify in court, the issue of paraphilic rape goes beyond the theoretical. Critics argue that 1) there is no reliable way to separate paraphilic rape from non paraphilic rape and that attempts by mental health professions to do so in the courts are both unethical and unscientific, 2) finding Paraphilia NOS represents collusion by MHPs to advancing police powers. Of these three diagnoses, Paraphilia NOS has been the most problematic since unlike Pedophilia and Sexual Sadism, rape paraphila is not spelled out as a separate diagnosis in the DSM. Attendees, following this presentation, should: understand the concept of paraphilic rape; differentiate paraphilic rape from nonparaphilic rape and paraphilic rape from sexual sadism; and understand controversies involving Paraphilia NOS (paraphilic rape) as it applies to Sexually Violent Predator civil commitment laws.||Psychiatry CD||2008||2370|
|Assessment and Treatment of an Exonerated Prisoner
||Veraldi D||Attendees will be able to explain the process and problems of evaluating and attempting to treat an adult who has a history of adverse childhood experiences and who has an overlay of adult stress and trauma. Approaches to evaluation and interpretation of results will be discussed. Use of psychophysiological measures as part of a comprehensive assessment of trauma will also be considered. Jimmy Bromgard was exonerated of a rape conviction. Bromgard, who was only 18 when he was convicted, was released after 15 1/2 years in prison. He is now suing the state of Montana.||psychology CD||2007||2220|
|How pop culture contributes to sex crimes||Good, Paul||Mainstream media, MTV, video games and cyber-porn have wired sexually aggressive images into the collective unconscious. The coarsening of pop culture is desensitizing and normalizing sex crimes. As a result, forensic psychologists need to contextualize sex crimes so that the contribution of situational and cultural factors is more fully appreciated. For example, rape and sexual assault derive partly from a new hyper-masculinity and the societal exploitation of women as sex objects. Pedophilic interests may partially correspond to forces in the marketplace that sexualize youth at younger and younger ages. Case examples will illustrate how forensic psychologists, in their reports and testimony, can give the trier of fact a more complex understanding of the causation of these crimes.||psychology CDs||2006||2016|
|Interviewing witnesses of crime||Geiselman RE||The original Cognitive Interview was created, refined, and implemented with funding from the U.S. Department of Justice between 1984 and 1992. The CI is based on memory-retrieval theory from cognitive psychology as well as dyadic communications theory. The CI has been modified for rape and other traumatized victims, mentally challenged persons, and children. The CI has been established as standard procedure for federal, state, and local law-enforcement agencies as well as for all peace officers in the UK. The history of this work will be presented. Attendees will learn about 1) effective techniques for conducting interviews; 2) the application of basic research in psychology to address a real-world need; 3) eyewitness psychology as a science.||psychology CDs||2006||2045|
|Update on classifying sexual offenders||Michals T
||Sexual offenders have historically been categorized by type of offense and by type of offender behavior. Nicholas Groth s 1979 motivational typology for rape classified a rapist s behavior by placing the offender into one of five categories. His work and that of Burgess and Holmstrom discarded the notion that rapists are motivated by sexual desire and that rape serves a number of psychological needs and motives. This presentation will begin by providing an overview of research which classifies rapists. Examples from our evaluations of rapists has shown that a rapist may evidence motivational behavior across different classifications within a single attack. Interview strategies for different types of rapists will also be presented. Attendees will obtain information regarding the classification of rapists; learn interview strategies for different types of rapists; understand the role of fantasy in sexual crimes.||psychiatry tapes||2005||1422|
|Expert testimony used to prove criminal conduct based on PTSD related trauma syndromes: rape trauma, child abuse and battered person syndromes||Trowbridge B||This presentation advances the thesis that "syndromes" which are not included in the DSM-IV-TR, such as "rape trauma syndrome," "child abuse accommodation syndrome," and "battered woman syndrome," should not be admissible evidence in criminal courts as evidence to prove guilt, unless the opposing side "opens the door" by claiming that the victim or defendant did not act as would normally be expected if they were in the circumstances they claim they were in. Attendees will understand research proving that each "syndrome" does not have symptoms unique to the associated trauma (e.g., symptoms of "rape trauma syndrome" do not always occur after a person has been raped); participants will learn the law of admissibility of the various "syndromes" in various jurisdictions.||psychology tape||2004||1352|
|Child psychiatric testimony and the leading edge of social change||Kliman G||Cases involving institutional neglect of children are important causes of social change. rapes, bullying, and the treatment facilities and schools which allow such events are coming under increased scrutiny. Examples will be given, and wrongful attacks on an institution s practices and the defense of a beleaguered institution will be described.||psychiatry tapes||2004||1379|
|Doctors in trouble with ketamine-murder, rape, malpractice and insanity-4 cases and review of ketamine and the expert witness||Jansen KLR||Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic with hallucinogenic effects. The presenter will consider the separate cases of four doctors facing charges resulting from their use of ketamine. Attendees will learn: the key facts concerning the use, users and consequences of ketamine of interest to forensic psychiatrists; the likely effects of ketamine on memory and other aspects of the mental state in the more frequently encountered circumstances; forming an opinion in malpractice suits involving the use of ketamine as a therapeutic agent.||psychiatry tapes||2003||1203|
|Explaining rape-supportive attitudes among rapists||Kroner DG
|In attempting to explain sexual assault, researchers and clinicians suggest that attitudes have a central role. In contrast to more static variables, such as personality structure. sociocultural variables, and sexual preferences, attitudes (patriarchal beliefs, negative attitudes towards women, rape myths) can more easily change as a result of treatment. As an example of attitude change, a controlled study among university students used a one hour treatment program on how to help a sexual assault survivor. This program defined rape, covered a graphic description of a male being raped, discussed connections between the male victim s experience and women s common rape experiences, and then suggested how to help a sexual assault survivor. Even though the program was only one hour, there were reductions in the endorsement of rape myth attitudes. rape myth attitudes have been defined as, attitudes and beliefs that are generally false but are widely and persistently held, and that serve to deny and justify male sexual aggression against women (i.e., most women secretly desire to get raped ) .||psychology journal||2003||1219|
|Pharmacological treatment of sex offenders and their victims||Marvasti JA||The author will explore the symptoms and disorders frequently present in both sex offenders and the victims of rape and incest including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, impulse control disorder, overstimulation syndrome, bipolar disorder, anxiety and panic attack. Pharmacological treatment of these disorders will be discussed. It will include antidepressants, antiandrogens,mood stabilizers and tranquilizers. Learning objectives: Participants will become familiar with the efficacy, indication and side effects of the medications discussed in the treatment of symptoms that may be present in sex offenders and victims.||psychiatry tapes||2001||840|
|Malingering of mental illness since three-strikes in California||Terrell HB||Since the "Three-Strikes and You re Out" law took effect in California on March 7, 1994, individuals convicted of their third felony with two prior serious felonies under "Three-Strikes" will typically receive a sentence of no less than 26 years to life in state prison. Judges who perform sentencing in such cases have very little leeway under the law to modify these guidelines. Prior to "Three-Strikes," it was very uncommon to see criminal defendants malingering symptoms of mental illness in any but the most serious of felony cases, typically murder and rape. Since the enactment of the "Three-Strikes" law in California, malingering has become far more common, even for such minor crimes as petty theft with a prior, presumably since any new felony conviction of a person with two prior strikes against them will result in a 26 years to life sentence. It seems well known among criminal defendants in California that if one is found not guilty by reason of insanity, they will receive much easier time (in a state mental hospital where they have more rights and privileges, as opposed to a state prison) and they are likely to be released once they are determined to be no longer dangerous due to mental illness (typically a lot less than 26 years to life). Participants will learn of the factors resulting in the proposal and passage of the Three-Strikes and You re Out law in California, motivating factors for criminal defendants to malinger symptoms of mental illness, and signs and tip-offs for evidence of malingering.
|Comparison of male and female dominated juries-coerced sex with male plaintiff||Hyme HS||Research strongly demonstrates gender differences in attributions of responsibility in rape and sexual harassment cases. The current study involves a case of coerced sex initiated by a woman toward a man. As hypothesized, after group deliberations, jurors in female dominated juries attributed more responsibility to the individual defendant than jurors in male dominated juries||psychology journal||2000||1458|
|Defense and PTSD - representing or confronting in court||Scrignar CB||The approach of the defense toward effective confrontation of a PTSD claim is critically analyzed. Cases involving employer and sexual harassment and rape, wrongful termination of employment, misdiagnosis, and the concept of malingering are illustrated with case histories from the speaker s experience. The plaintiff s view and the defense challenges are illustrated with the "Ten Defense Challenges to PTSD." Participants will be able to effectively present PTSD in court and/or confront the diagnosis of PTSD during direct and cross-examination.
|Victimization and development of PTSD||Ohayon M||Posttraumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder that was first identified in Second World War veterans. However, this disorder can be developed in situations where an individual is exposed to an extreme situation such as being a victim or witness of an aggression. We assessed the prevalence of this disorder in a sample of 1832 subjects representative of the general population of Toronto, Canada. Aggressive traumatic events (such as physical aggression, rape, robbery) were compared to other traumatic events in terms of daily repercussions and subsequent development of other disorders. At the end of this presentation, participants should be able to recognize manifestations of posttraumatic stress disorder and know the risks associated with the experience of traumatic events.
|Comparison of male and female dominated juries in a case of coerced sex with a male plaintiff||Hyme HS
|Research strongly demonstrates gender differences in attributions of responsibility in rape and sexual harassment cases. The current study involves a case of coerced sex initiated by a woman toward a man. College students (n = 103) and jury eligible participants (n = 94) participated as mock jurors. Mock jurors in male dominated and female dominated juries were compared. There were no significant differences in attributions of responsibility or confidence level prior to group deliberations. As hypothesized, however, after group deliberations, jurors in female dominated juries attributed more responsibility to the individual defendant than jurors in male dominated juries. Contrary to the hypothesis, jurors in male and female dominated juries were not significantly different in their attributions for the plaintiff. The hypothesis that gender minority jurors would attribute responsibility in a way similar to gender majority jurors was supported. Finally, the hypothesis that jurors in female dominated juries would be more confident in their decisions than jurors in male dominated juries was also supported. It appears that gender majority jurors exerted a powerful influence on gender minority jurors. After deliberations, jurors in male dominated juries reflected attitudes of men and jurors in female dominated juries reflected attitudes of women.||psychology journal||1998||1140|
|Race, age and jury decisions in a civil rape trial- jury study||Foley LA||The present study assessed jury decisions in a civil rape trial. The age and race of the plaintiff was varied through computer generated photographs. Mock jurors were from two distinct populations, university students and jury eligible citizens. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Legal Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Universal Orientation Scale; viewed a photo of the plaintiff while listening to the case on audiotape; made individual and group assessments of responsibility of the plaintiff and defendant; and awarded monetary damages. Hypotheses that mock jurors would attribute less responsibility and award more damages to the white plaintiff than the black plaintiff were supported for the university students, but jury eligible participants reacted in the opposite direction. Similar findings occurred with regard to predictions for personality measures; they were supported for university students but not for jury eligible mock jurors. Our research indicates the necessity of reevaluating these instruments on a nonacademic population so that they will be more generalizable to civil trials||psychology journal||1997||663|
|Carlson psychological survey as a measure of prosocial changes in lifestyle, violent juvenile offenders within a secure treatment program||Eisenbuch A||The emergence of this acute contemporary focus can best be understood as a ground-swell response to the numerous, large-scale longitudinal studies, which have presented compelling evidence that the vast majority of serious juvenile crime (armed robbery, assault, rape and homicide) are committed each year by a relatively small group of hard core juvenile offenders; totaling only about 10-15 percent of all juvenile offenders.||psychiatry journal||1997||2092|
|The cognitive interview- legal alternative to forensic hypnosis||Geiselman RE||The Cognitive Interview (CI) is a collection of memory retrieval and communications techniques that can be used to interview victims and witnesses of crime. Versions of CI have been tried by law enforcement personnel and other professionals for over a decade. During this time, CI has been expanded and refined to meet the capabilities of special groups including the mentally retarded, rape victims, and children. The empirical research, case studies from the field, and legal challenges are discussed. Forensic psychologists will learn an interview technique that is a legally acceptable alternative to forensic hypnosis. In addition, they will be familiarized with the research and legal bases in support of the technique.
|Eye Movement Desensitivation-use in motor vehicle accident-induced trauma||Puk G||Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is an effective treatment used in the Veterans Administration System with combat veterans and also with rape and molestation victims. Clinical case reports illustrate reduction or elimination of flashbacks, nightmares and other sleep disturbances, anxiety while driving and traveling, avoidance behavior and cognitive distortions relating to the victim's post-accident adjustment.
|Rape offenders' perceptions of victim attitudes||Cleary MF||This study finds that the rape victim's reaction, as perceived by the offender, is largely irrelevant to the offender. Most of the cases to which the author refers involve strangers, and the deliberate selection of a stranger underscores this lack of affect or empathy on the part of the rapist to the victim.
|Forensic hypnosis, memory recall related to rape and battery cases||Annon JS||Hypnotic induction was employed in three cases in order to refresh the victim's memory for specific past events. Cases involve women who were battered and raped. Presenter utilized photographic slides and audio tapes.
||psychology tape||1988||90||Reliability and validity of penile plethysmography in rape and child molestation cases||Annon JS||Psychophysiological measurement of genital blood flow in sex offenders is sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the fields of psychology and psychiatry. Discussion and extensive references on this procedure||psychology journal||1988||1851|
|Sociopathic styles- homicide, serial murder, serial rape||Marcus AM||Five offenders are compared and contrasted: three serial psychopathic murderers, a serial rapist and an offender who committed a single homicide. The comparison serves to illustrate characteristics that aid in the diagnosis of sociopathic behavior.||psychiatry tapes||1987||112|
|Community based psychiatric services for domestic violence and child sex abuse cases||Fritsch TA||Focus on the nature and extent of domestic violence, rape and sexual assault, with reference to the experiences of Kentucky mental health services, and specifically their committee on domestic violence prevention.
|Rape- psychiatric interviews with five rapists-rape potential||Berlin FS||Rapists tend to be overly assaultive, hypersexual males from the criminal subculture who can accept a wide range of sexual gratification and who exhibit a significant level of emotional disturbance. Offenders who exhibit the greatest future rape potential have often been involved in the following triad of crimes: heterosexual pedophilia, voyeurism and molestation of women in a lonely place. 2 tapes or journal article
|Rape: psychiatric interviews with five rapists||Berlin FS||Psychiatry tape||1986||2124|
|Psychodynamics of rapists- vulnerability of victims||Coodley A||The author points out that a significant percentage of offenders minimize the frequency of their actions and that, while in treatment, continuation of rape behavior can take place. Discussion of rape categories, case examples, victims and mental health treatment. Rapists, says Dr. Coodley, often select victims because of apparent vulnerability or availability. He adds, Those women who seem to avoid victimization tend to be somewhat self-asssured, distrustful when the occasion warrants it, and rarely fall for traps because they can spot potential danger.||psychiatry journal||1985||1582|
|Psychological profile of the rapist||McDonald, A Paitich D||Despite the relative enlightenment of our modern world, the feeling of inevitability about rape continues to permeate the preconscious of our society. A tragic example was the gang rape of a young woman on the floor of an auditorium in a large Midwestern city during a rock concert. The rape was witnesses by literally hundreds of people, not all of whom can be assumed to have primarily sadistic personalities. No one except the young woman s male escort tried to help. The studies by McDonald and Paitich give support to clinical and victim-supplied impressions about men who rape.||psychiatry journal||1983||1516|
|Consequences of resistance during rape||Howard WB||psychiatry journal||1981||1926|
|Historical similarity of 20th century serial sexual homicide to pre-20th century occurrences of vampirism||Brown, JS||The current concepts of the 20th century phenomenon known as serial sexual homicide and the 19th century occurrence of vampirism are shown to be inaccurate, most likely due to media misrepresentations of the full nature of the crimes. Serial sexual homicide is shown to be composed of rape, murder, necrophilia, mutilation, cannibalism and drinking of blood, which are identical features of what has been historically referred to over the last two centuries as vampirism, necrophilia, or lust murder. The confusion over terminology is best solved by the continued use of serial sexual homicide to describe these crimes, although it is imperative to realize that 1) these crimes are not new and are probably not dependent on 20th century culture, and 2) an understanding of the psychological basis of these crimes will be found in examination of the motives found in classical necrophilia and vampirism.||psychiatry journal||2219|