Forensic neurosciences Author Abstract Source Year Order Number
A consumer's perspective on writing independent psychological evaluation reports Kertay L, Pendergrass T The presentation examines the independent medical/psychological evaluation from the standpoint of the consumer, who is usually not the examinee but is instead an insurer, an officer of the court, or an agency. For these consumers, it is critical that the psychological and neuropsychological examiner effectively communicates empirically-based opinions that can be expressed with a reasonable degree of scientific certainty. More to the point, reports need to convey what the consumer needs to know, not what we might think they want to hear. Examples from reports written in a disability context will be presented. Following the presentation, participants can expect to: be able to cite common errors in technical writing for psychological reports, and strategies for correcting them; be able to state the key differences between clinical and functional perspectives on psychological functioning; be able to cite the key ethical issues in conducting psychological evaluations for third parties Psychology CD 2008 2420
Contribution of neuropsychological evaluation in capital cases Miora DS Historical and more recent legal developments in capital cases have permitted the presentation of defenses about neuro-psychological deficits even in the absence of blatant mental retardation. Certain types of deficits are routinely found which bear investigation and consideration, often in the context of histories of complex trauma. Examples focused on executive dysfunction and its ramifications for neuropsychological function will be offered to illustrate the value of neuropsychological investigation in such cases. Problems with ethnic demographic corrections in such contexts will be discussed as pertains to the potential obfuscation of neurodevelopmental disorders and the more appropriate comparison of such data to the general population Psychiatry CD 2008 2395
Personality and anxiety disorders, such as panic attacks, from neurotoxicity Singer R Neurotoxicity from substances such as solvents, pesticides, and mold can damage the nervous system in unpredictable ways. There are no impregnable boundaries that prevent toxics from going anywhere in the brain, wreaking havoc on any brain structure or brain processes in their path, and ineluctably affecting neuropsychological function. Patients who present with an anxiety or personality disorder may be accused of long-standing mental health disorders that obviate and confound a diagnosis of neurotoxicity, resulting in an incomplete diagnosis and iatrogenic frustration and despair. In this talk, the author will present several cases of anxiety/panic disorders and personality changes documented from neurotoxicity. Psychology CD 2008 2428
PTSD and TBI-mutually exclusive or two sides of the same coin? Christian Johnson D Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been the signature casualty of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The dramatic increase in prevalence of head trauma has brought additional attention to the relationship between TBI and PTSD. Because TBI commonly results in loss of consciousness, some have indicated that TBI and PTSD cannot coexist. This clinical argument is predicated on the notion that human learning mechanisms are unimodal, and that encoding of memories requires awareness. This talk will present recent findings from PTSD and TBI research, drawing largely from neuropsychological and clinical studies that highlight the importance of understanding how PTSD is actually acquired, and the implications of this type of acquisition for forensic evaluations and treatment. Attendees will be able to enumerate PTSD and TBI nosology; describe the role of fear conditioning in PTSD; explain why memory encoding during trauma allows for PTSD and TBI to coexist; identify importance of PTSD diagnostic tools for application in forensic settings Psychology CD 2008 2410
The trouble with feigned cognitive impairments Posthuma A One of the most promising neuropsychological research developments since the advent of our entry into medical legal assessments has been the growing literature on feigned cognitive impairments (FCI). This paper will review current FCI assessment strategies, the complexity of FCI and the challenge of differential diagnoses when dealing with FCI, MTBI, PTSD and chronic pain. Reasons that contemporary medical-legal neuropsychological evidence must include a comprehensive assessment of the probable non-credible referral issues will be outlined Psychology CD 2008 2405
Validity evaluation in forensic psychiatry-it is no longer whether or when but how to establish validity of plaintiff's complaints, symptoms, and functional abilities Obolsky A The role of a forensic psychiatrist is to determine the nature, extent, and cause of alleged mental injury. Forensic psychiatrists investigate claims of emotional injury by utilizing record review, neuropsychological and psychological testing, and interviews, among other techniques. Neuropsychological and psychological testing and plaintiff interviews depend on plaintiff's compliance through motivated performance on testing and in provision of truthful information in interview. Plaintiffs are often under pressure by powerful forces that affect their cooperation with forensic psychiatric evaluation. Psychiatry CD 2008 2382
Forensic Neuropsychology and Evaluation of Toxic Chemical Injuries Singer R Neuropsychology, in conjunction with neurotoxicology, has many applications in the forensic arena. While helpful in some cases, medical measurements such as brain imaging, electrophysiological responses, or blood indicators often cannot identify the cause, nor the damages of neurotoxicity. In contrast, neuropsychology is ideally suited for this purpose. These methods can even be applied in forensically evaluating toxic chemical causes of suicide psychology CD 2007 2235
A Scientific Approach to Analyzing the Validity of Cognitive, Affective
and Behavioral Symptoms in the Medicolegal Context
McLaren T
Goldsmith DA
Psychiatrists have traditionally focused their efforts on helping to alleviate distress and dysfunction. Within that context, the patient's verbal and non-verbal communications serve as the principal source of data. Increasingly, psychiatrists depart from their therapeutic role to provide impartial expert analyses of clinical issues in a medico-legal context. In so doing, the psychiatrist operates with a different set of assumptions, responsibilities, challenges and standards (i.e., Daubert). In addition to identifying crucial differences between the roles of treating psychiatrists and psychiatric experts in a forensic context, this presentation will identify specific strategies to assess the validity of psychological and neurocognitive test data, obtain and utilize empirically-based evidence from specific tests and assessment techniques; review relevant clinical research; and provide a rationale for incorporating collateral data from neuropsychological and/or clinical psychological examination. psychiatry CD 2007 2275
Ethical Considerations in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Remote MTBI Posthuma A Prospective control group studies indicate that the window of opportunity for neuropsychological testing differentiating specific deficits from a MTBI (Mild Traumatic Brain Injury) is between 3 to 12 months post injury. Yet the courtroom typically hears neuropsychological "evidence" based on testing conducted 2 or 3 years post injury. Daubert and our own professional standards require scientific support for our evidence. This session will review the data, some possible reasons why we violate these standards, and the ethical issues that arise. Audience participation will be encouraged. psychology CD 2007 2239
Forensic Neuropsychological Testing of Rural Peruvian Population Exposed to Mercury Halote B
Puig A
On June 2, 2000, 330 pounds of elemental mercury from a local gold mine was spilled over a 45-kilometer stretch of a main road in the Andes. Adults and children of all ages from the surrounding towns, thinking the mercury to be something valuable, gathered and carried it using any means available. Levels of exposure and symptoms varied, and many victims did not receive treatment or care as local resources were quickly overwhelmed. This presentation outlines an approach to a forensic assessment model for a culturally diverse and challenging population. Attendees will understand the application and presentation of forensic neuropsychological data in toxic exposure. psychology CD 2007 2224
Neuropsychological Effects of Complex PTSD Zimmermann M Individuals who have experienced childhood traumas, particularly multiple or repeated traumas, have been found to display deficits in neuropsychological functioning. These deficits may be in information processing, cognitive organization, memory or impulse control. This presentation will describe these deficits and discuss how they can contribute to violent or aggressive behavior. Case examples will be presented, with discussion of how neuropsychological difficulties were factors in the development of violent offenses psychology CD 2007 2223
Some problems inherent in neuropsychological testing
Trowbridge BC, Schutte JW Neuropsychological tests are used to determine whether an individual has brain damage (brain dysfunction) and if so, the extent and cause of that brain damage. Neuropsychological tests use samples of the individual s behavior (test performance) to make inferences about brain functioning. In order for neuropsychological testing to be of use, the practitioner must be qualified, must use standardized tests with official norms, must be able to address basic statistical issues regarding testing, and must be able to address threats to test validity, including inappropriate norms, limited English proficiency on the part of the patient, and possible malingering. psychology journal 2007 2310
The Case for a Threshold for Competency in Sexually Violent Predator Civil Commitment Proceedings

Abrams AA
Commitment of the sexually violent predator (SVP) is not only informed by restorative intent but also the desire to protect other members of society from the insidious propensities of the SVP. Thus, remanding an alleged offender to an SVP program constitutes some hybrid of civil ameliorative intervention and criminal containment and, as such, may be construed as quasi-criminal. Toward this end, most SVP laws endeavor to incorporate the preponderance of procedural due process rights accorded to accused individuals within the criminal justice system, except the right to be competent. However, the behaviors of sexually violent predators not infrequently find their origins in psychiatric or neurologic pathology. These same conditions, in fact, often compromise an SVP respondent s mental competence to stand trial. If he is unable to rationally collaborate with his attorney, an accused SVP defendant s fundamental right to counsel, which underpins all procedural due process, is subverted. Furthermore. the outcome of extensive substantive due process rights litigation in civil commitment cases has consistently upheld that those who are involuntarily confined by civil means are entitled to non-punitive conditions of confinement including individualized medically appropriate treatment. However, in the absence of some standard for trial competency, we propound that SVP commitment proceedings fail to fulfill either the procedural due process rights for criminal containment or the substantive due process guarantees for civil commitment.
psychiatry journal 2007 2298
THE Case of Leopold and Loeb: The Potential Role of Autistic and Psychopathic Pathologies
Silva JA In 1924, 18-year-old Nathan Leopold and 17-year-old Richard Loeb killed a 14-year-old boy, in an attempt to perpetrate the perfect crime. Their criminal case was defended by the legendary defense attorney Clarence Darrow, and from a psychiatric-legal perspective, became one of the most comprehensively analyzed cases of its time. In this presentation we revisit the case of Leopold and Loeb from a forensic psychiatric viewpoint. The case is analyzed from the perspective that both the concepts of autism and psychopathy may be relevant for an optimal understanding of the case. An in-depth diagnostic phenomenological psychohistorical analysis of both Loeb and Leopold was made and the results are presented. However, neuropsychiatric and cognitive-psychological perspectives are also important. The potential value of considering both higher functioning autism and psychopathic pathology in contemporaneous criminal cases is overviewed in this presentation. psychiatry CD 2007 2268
Update on Forensic Psychological Testing Michals TJ
Samuel SE
Learn about the patterns of psychological test use among forensic psychologists; about computer-generated personality testing reports and about typical cross-examination questions regarding computer-generated personality assessment reports. In addition to interview data and collateral information, surveys consistently report that psychological testing data are admissible, informative, and frequently utilized sources of information for forensic psychiatrists. Mindful of this, our presentation has two foci: the first provides updated survey results regarding psychological/neuropsychological test usage among forensic psychologists. Our second focus will be to analyze the texts of several different computer-generated personality assessment reports regarding adolescent and adult forensic psychological testing evaluations completed in our practice. A finding of heuristic interest, and a basis of potential courtroom queasiness, is that the reports typically provide a forensic psychiatrist with servings of contradictory, and often disparate, conclusions regarding the tests' validity, the patient's status and diagnosis. Bromides for this scenario will be presented for discussion.- psychiatry CD 2007 2274
Clinical and forensic assessment, current theories of etiology and psychopharmacological treatment for patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain Fine EW
Ohayon M
The association of pain with depression is one of the best examples of how the mind and body are inextricably interdependent and patently inseparable. Psychiatrists have long known that physical symptoms such as appetite disturbances, loss of weight, insomnia and overwhelming fatigue are frequently present in patients with depression, and it is now very evident that pain is also commonly associated with depression. A better understanding of the relationship between pain and depression is based on the fact that these phenomena have significantly related neurotransmitter physiology. Indeed, pain might be the chief, or even the only, complaint that depressed patients make to their physicians, and therefore it has been proposed that pain should be considered as the fifth vital sign. Forensic and clinical psychiatric evaluations of patients with pain-depression interactions should always be carried out within a biopsychosocial context. There are constant challenges in trying to evaluate pain disorders associated with psychological factors, often further complicated by factitious disorder, malingering or symptom magnification. Scientific discoveries of the kind described in this article might be expected to eventually result in a more complete understanding and appreciation of the linkages between psyche and soma. psychiatry journal 2006 1963
Collaborative role of neuropsychology in IME cases: legal and clinical perspectives Miora FAA regulations, current salient issues, advice and insights will be offered for those interested in providing (or learning about) aviation psychiatry evaluations for the FAA or similar government agencies. An FAA psychiatrist, an FAA consultant and her paralegal will discuss the essentials of a credible consultation report, challenges to getting objective information, arriving at a meaningful conclusion, and the importance of getting information outside of the consultation room, i.e., observation in the waiting room, interactions with staff, etc. Time permitting, will have a would you fly with this pilot? discussion. Attendees will learn about 1) the FAA regulations for mental health and addictive disorders; 2) current common issues and controversies; 3) the unique challenges to providing these consultations; 4) invaluable information gained by effective use of office staff as observers to compliment your formal session. psychiatry tapes 2006 2010
Forensic psychological testing with Hispanics: guidelines and caveats LaCalle JL
Monguio I
The tests most frequently used in forensic evaluations MMPI-II, MCMI-III, WAIS-III, WAIS-IIIE, WISC, Rorschach, TAT, CPI, PAI, HARE (PLC-R), as well as the tests most frequently used in neuropsychological evaluations, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), WME-III, Ray Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Baterķa-R, Luria-Nebraska, Color Trails Test (CTT) will be evaluated as per standardization and validity with the multiple and diverse Hispanic population. Special problems encountered by forensic psychologists in defending their findings in cross-examination will be addressed. Attendees will learn which tests are properly developed to use with Hispanics; specific difficulties likely to be encountered in using those tests; differentiation among the Hispanic subcultures; which tests are not definitely recommended; courtroom tactics psychology CDs 2006 2038
History of the intermix of psychiatry and law Slovenko R This mock trial focuses on a medical malpractice case in which a patient prescribed various medications for anxiety and depression soon exhibited Parkinsonian-like symptoms and wound up in the emergency room of a local hospital. Other drugs were administered as an antidote for the original medications, but these drugs caused further complications, including drug toxicity. Patient was seen at the hospital by a consulting neurologist and the patient s psychiatrist. Both doctors diagnosed him as having a psychiatric disorder that caused psychosis, rather than recognizing drug toxicity complications. The patient was given yet more medications to try to alleviate the psychosis which, ultimately, landed him in intensive care with another incorrect diagnosis. The patient experienced a significant right hemispheric stroke, brain damage, and other neurological injuries. What actually happened? Who is responsible, and for what? The psychiatrist said he deferred to the neurologist and followed that physician s recommendations. The neurologist said that he was just a consultant. The internist who admitted the patient said that he had transferred the patient to the psychiatrist who hospitalized him on the psychiatric unit. Attendees will learn about expert testimony in court and how to conform expert testimony to optimal style and content. All of the College s mock trials are fictionalized and presented solely to educate the attending forensic psychiatrists. psychiatry tapes 2006 2009
Introduction to forensic neuropsychology Van Couvering N A brief overview of CNS localization, underlying assumptions, methods of measurement, and applications will be presented. This is at an entry or review level. Attendees will recognize gross brain-behavior relationships, compare and contrast neuropsychological and psychiatric diagnostic procedures, and select appropriate criteria for the interpretation of findings. psychology CDs 2006 2022
Mock trial Sharp R This mock trial focuses on a medical malpractice case in which a patient prescribed various medications for anxiety and depression soon exhibited Parkinsonian-like symptoms and wound up in the emergency room of a local hospital. Other drugs were administered as an antidote for the original medications, but these drugs caused further complications, including drug toxicity. Patient was seen at the hospital by a consulting neurologist and the patient s psychiatrist. Both doctors diagnosed him as having a psychiatric disorder that caused psychosis, rather than recognizing drug toxicity complications. The patient was given yet more medications to try to alleviate the psychosis which, ultimately, landed him in intensive care with another incorrect diagnosis. The patient experienced a significant right hemispheric stroke, brain damage, and other neurological injuries. What actually happened? Who is responsible, and for what? The psychiatrist said he deferred to the neurologist and followed that physician s recommendations. The neurologist said that he was just a consultant. The internist who admitted the patient said that he had transferred the patient to the psychiatrist who hospitalized him on the psychiatric unit. Attendees will learn about expert testimony in court and how to conform expert testimony to optimal style and content. All of the College s mock trials are fictionalized and presented solely to educate the attending forensic psychiatrists. psychiatry tapes 2006 2069
Serious side effects of SSRI medications Glass GS Comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation in forensic psychiatry can support and expand upon hypotheses and conclusions reached in the IME process. The presenters will 1) define neuropsychological evaluation; 2) demonstrate how one evaluates for sustained neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric effects of traumatic brain injury; 3) discuss the neuropsychological evaluation of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders in IME cases. The role of effort testing in the analysis and interpretation of test results will be briefly explored. Case examples will serve to clarify the concepts and value of neuropsychological assessment in the context of independent medical evaluation. psychiatry tapes 2006 2012
The worst of all possible worlds: youth in the adult criminal justice system Scherzer, A The functional competency of youth to stand trial has become an increasing problem for the court system. As an increasing number of juveniles face adjudication in both the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems, there is increasing awareness of neurodevelopmental immaturity and its associated cognitive limitations. However, the majority of competency statutes only recognize mental illness or defect as causes of incompetence to stand trial. While youth facing criminal charges may present with a significant incidence of mental illness or defect, most juveniles have not yet developed the cognitive skills requisite for adjudicative competence. For this group the concept of restoration is inappropriate, although they may develop competence through appropriate habilitation. To assure fundamental due process, our adversarial system of criminal justice must recognize the uniqueness of youth s cognitive immaturity, as well as their potential psychological deficits. This article explores the complexities of habilitation of adjudicative competence and dilemmas that must be addressed to assure fairness and due process
psychiatry journal 2006 2052
Validation of the Barkemeyer-Callon-Jones Malingering Detection scale Wymer JH
Barkemeyer A
Jones GN
Callon EB
To test the hypothesis that patients with objective findings on their neurological examinations would not, to a statistically or clinically significant degree, use the behaviors of malingering that are described in the Barkemeyer-Callon-Jones Malingering Detection Scale (MDS). The MDS allows the examiner to evaluate patients in an objective manner under the theory that malingerers use identifiable behaviors that are not used by patients with neurological disorders. psychology journal 2006 1987
Aging, mental competency, and neuropsychological assessment Kastl AJ The presentation concerns the use of neuropsychological testing in evaluation of elderly persons whose mental competency is called into question. Participants will learn about current assessment techniques for mental competency, the use of screening tests, and the need for comprehensive examination in more complex cases. psychiatry tapes 2005 1406
Analysis of serial homicide in the case of Joel Rifkin using the neuropsychiatric developmental model Silva JA
Leong GB
Smith RS
Hawes E
Ferrari MM
[The] fetishistic behaviors of Joel Rifkin involved a marked tendency to deal with the body as physical constructs that could be better dealt with as collections of parts. This process would include his need to remove physical belongings from his victims such as their clothing or jewelry, his frequent focus on the anatomical area involving the neck during sexual intercourse as highlighted by his fascination with strangulation and the sectioning of some of his victims into body parts, regardless of his stated need for such activities. These behaviors suggest that JR and other autistic serial killers are predisposed to experience human beings more as deconstructible living entities, a process that is consistent with the autistic tendency to view objects as composites of parts. JR s apparent difficulties with face processing are not inconsistent with studies of high functioning autistics who may have difficulties with processing unfamiliar faces including emotional face recognition. Joel Rifkin, New York s most prolific serial killer, brutally murdered 17 women. His four-year killing spree ended with his arrest in June 1993. Serial homicide has been the object of substantial attention during the last few decades, and has been studied in some depth from a variety of psychosocial and forensic scientific perspectives. However, a true biopsychosocial model of serial crime has yet to emerge. In this article we analyze the case of sexual serial killer, Joel Rifkin from neuropsychiatric developmental and ecological perspectives. psychiatry journal 2005 1959
Assessment of malingering across neuropsychological domains Gonzalez F Tests of effort and motivation have become common in the field of neuropsychology and forensic psychology with a proliferation of new tests and research. These instruments can assist in assessing the effort of the examinee and the confidence one can place in subsequent test results. The implementation of these techniques and importance of history, collateral information, and consistency of information in the diagnostic formulation within the framework of a case best described as pseudodementia, will be described. Attendees will understand the history and nature of malingering tests; appreciate the rationale for inclusion of tests of effort and motivation for both plaintiff and defense work; learn about the major techniques of assessing effort and motivation across different neuropsychological domains. psychology tape 2005 1430
Denial of mental illness as a barrier to competency to stand trial Wolber G R.D. was charged with assault. She has a long-standing history of a major mental illness with delusions and auditory hallucinations. Available evidence indicates that she was likely psychotic at the time of the alleged offense. During her evaluation for competency to stand trial, R.D. appeared to be in partial remission from her mental illness. In terms of competence, she seemed to have a good understanding of her charge and potential outcomes for her case. She also seemed to have a good factual understanding of the roles of difference courtroom personnel and of possible pleas. She reported that she had confidence in her attorney and that she could work with her defense counsel. However, she adamantly denied that she had a mental illness and she seemed incapable of considering any possible plea that would indicate that she might have a mental illness. This would include the consideration of a possible insanity defense which her attorney believed could have been a viable option for her. R.D. stated, "No way I m saying that I was crazy. I wasn't. God told me that I was right and that I was doing a good thing. He [the victim of the assault] was taking over minds for evil purposes." R.D.'s thinking about her choices concerning her pending trial appeared to be distorted. The fact that she denied that she was mentally ill seemed to have a significant bearing on her ability to plead and this denial likely represented a barrier to her competence to stand trial. This article presents discussion and case examples concerning the denial of major mental illness as a potential barrier to competency to stand trial. Defendants who are otherwise competent to stand trial may deny the fact that they have a mental illness with accompanying impaired judgment and distorted thinking. This can negatively impact their competence to make decisions during and about the trial process. Competency to stand trial when there is denial of major mental illness is examined for the following clinical instances: 1) making decisions relevant to court proceedings to include pleading, e.g., the insanity defense; 2) the complexities/context of individual cases; 3) major mental illness versus personality features, e.g., narcissism; and 4) neurocognitive dysfunction. Examples based on actual cases are presented.
psychology journal 2005 1969
Forensic suicidology: the genetics, neurocognition and behavior of suicide Hyman E Mental disorders such as bipolar are among the most lethal of disorders. Attendees will understand the current legal, ethical, risk management and theoretical issues associated with the study of suicide, prevention, prediction and postdiction; the current level of instrumentation in issues associated with suicide potential, and their assessment predictively and post hoc. They will also become familiar with the most recent suicidology of genetic, neurocognitive and behavioral indicators of self-risk and how to assess suicide potential more effectively in a forensic environment. psychology tape 2005 1457
Iatrogenic contributions to disability Pendergrass R
Kertay L
Psychologists are often in a position to have tremendous influence, for both good and ill, on a patient s functionality with respect to work and other aspects of daily living. The presenters will explore some of the obvious and subtle ways in which psychologists can unwittingly contribute to disability in psychotherapy patients and subjects examined in forensic psychological or neuropsychological settings. Participants will be able to describe (and outline strategies for alleviating or managing) potential iatrogenic factors in psychotherapy, psychological or neuropsychological assessment that may exacerbate disability and dysfunction in patients; and describe the ethical and legal implications of potential iatrogenic factors in psychological assessment and treatment. psychology tape 2005 1447
Neuropsychological assessment in personal injury cases: patient care and legal necessities McClain VR Dr. McClain will focus on providing strategies for neuropsychological assessment of personal injury patients that balance the competing interests of appropriate patient care with anticipating legal hurdles. She will discuss test selection, establishing rapport, ethical issues and anticipating legal challenges. The importance of applying safeguards to maximize correct assessment of potential damages will be addressed including illustrations of neuropsychological and psychological test instruments and strategies to rule out malingering and false claims. Participants will be able to identify relevant laws and limitations governing psychological evaluations in civil suits; appropriate selection techniques for testing in personal injury cases; and ethical concerns and limits in personal injury forensic evaluations. psychology tape 2005 1446
The effects of psychopathy, violence and drug use on neuropsychological functioning Mercer KD
Selby MJ
McClung JC
Previous research has provided some evidence that neuropsychological dysfunction is present in individuals displaying violent and/or antisocial behavior however, the extent and nature of this relationship is unclear. The present study examined the differences in neuropsychological performance among violent, psychopathic and drug abusing male felons. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was completed by 330 adult incarcerated male felons who were classified into six subgroups. Results showed psychopaths, drug users and violent offenders perform worse on measures of executive functioning than control groups of nonpsychopaths, non-drug users and nonviolent offenders. Findings provide support for past research indicating frontal lobe deficits among psychopaths, violent individuals and substance abusers. Frontal lobe deficits were also most pronounced when a combination of these behaviors occurred in the same individual. psychology journal 2005 1977
Credibility, symptom validity, and the law in disability analysis Pendergrass T
Kertay L
Because assessments initially intended to be clinical often find their way into the medicolegal arena, a thorough evaluation of the examinee's effort should be part of all psychological and neurocognitive assessments. This presentation provides information about formal symptom validity measures, in the context of a method for evaluating the results of these tests and integrating the findings with behavioral observations, interview data, and collateral information. Multiple methods of validity assessment are discussed in the context of relevant case law and criteria for courtroom admissibility. psychology tape 2004 1366
Effective use of forensic neuropsychology in the courtroom Kastl, AJ At the last meeting a speaker raised serious issues concerning normative data, diagnostic efficiency, and cultural biases in neuropsychological testing. Presenters will review that presentation and offer a rebuttal to each of his objections. Participants will learn the composition of useful neuropsychological batteries, and how to defend these batteries in the courtroom setting. They will also be able to acknowledge the limitations inherent in any neuropsychological assessment. psychology tape 2004 1381
Forensic evaluation of mold neurotoxicity cases Singer R Although an increasing number of people claim mold illness, many doctors are not aware of the types of illness that can result from mold. There is increasing consolidation of research describing mold neurotoxicity, and a conclusion regarding this topic appears to require special training and experience to be reached. In addition, there are many difficulties with environmental measurement of exposure. Attendees will learn about the controversies regarding mold neurotoxicity, and about questions to ask when presented with an environmental assessment of mold. psychology tape 2004 1357
Terror, trauma and therapies for victims Marvasti JA Attendees will learn the definition of psychic trauma and its neurobiological change in traumatized victims; will understand the negative impact of terror and trauma in children and adults; and become familiar with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for symptomatic treatment of PTSD and acute stress disorder.
psychiatry tapes 2004 1376
Three current uses of psychological and neuropsychological assessment Kastl AJ This presentation will discuss three circumstances in which psychological and neuropsychological evaluation may be helpful. First, the role of such assessment in workers compensation and the completion of the eight work impairment factors will be reviewed. Secondly, neuropsychological assessment is important in cases involving cortical compromise, especially in cases of mild traumatic brain injury and dementia. Finally, the role of assessment in mental competency examinations of all types will be discussed. The limitations of these procedures and their misuse will be reviewed. The goal of the presentation is to review methods which may supplement psychiatric practices. psychiatry tapes 2004 1380
Asperger's Disorder and the origins of the Unabomber Silva JA
Ferrari MM
Leong GB
Although it is well known that various mental health professionals view the Unabomber as suffering from schizophrenia, most of these assertions do not appear to be consistent with a psychotic process. In this article we introduce a neuropsychiatric developmental approach in order to provide a new perspective on the psychiatric nature of the Unabomber and to attempt to shed some light on the nature of his criminal behavior. psychiatry journal 2003 1206
Communicating psychological findings to attorneys - workshop Monguio I
Kennedy S
For forensic psychologists, one of the most frustrating aspects of work in criminal cases is the nagging suspicion that the attorneys requesting our data and conclusions do not seem to be able to use it in a way that we would. Attorneys tell us that often they do not get information in a format that they are able use in court. A clinical neuropsychologist and a federal public defender will discuss needs, views, and problems from both perspectives. psychology tape 2003 1189
Effective and practical strategies and techniques for the psychological assessment and treatment of malingered incompetency Hume M Key elements of an effective competency restoration treatment program and the process of assessment and treatment of malingered neurocognitive and/or psychiatric incompetence will be described. Effective multimodal forensic assessment instruments, detection of malingering, and how these assessments can be used in the clinical treatment of patients identified as malingering will be discussed.
psychology tape 2003 1199
Forensic neuropsychological examination of the pediatric brain injury patient Pasino JA Traumatic brain injury is the most frequent cause of disability and death among children in the U.S. Cases involving children with PTBI increasingly find their way into the courtroom. Preinjury factors, treatment, severity, recovery, special considerations in testing, laws and regulations will be addressed. psychology tape 2003 1196
Neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury-assessment and forensic applications Maldonado JR There are more than 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury every year. Of these, some 300,000 require hospitalization and approximately 80,000 develop a serious chronic sequelae. This presentation will include discussion of epidemiology, neuroanatomy, and assessment of TBI. Special attention will be paid to the clinical features associated with TBI including the predictors of outcome and the psychiatric consequences of traumatic injury. Forensic aspects of TBI will be discussed. psychiatry tapes 2003 1174
Practice guidelines and defensive medicine Tang SW Healthcare authorities around the world and managed care companies in this country have published all kinds of psychiatric practice guidelines and treatment protocols. Some of these guidelines were motivated by economic reasons, others were based on scientific evidence, frequently outdated due to the rapid advances in neurosciences. As published guidelines can potentially be used to aid in establishing an allegation of negligence as well as for exculpatory purposes, it is important to understand how guidelines are established. This presentation examines some of the dilemmas one faces in adopting the guidelines. psychiatry tapes 2003 1169
Psychological impairment and work function in medicolegal assessments Schultz IZ Forensic psychological and neuropsychological assessments in personal injury and occupational contexts require a determination of the relationship between psychological impairment and present or anticipated work function. The methodological complexities and ambiguities of this determination with particular emphasis on assessment problems which make psychologists vulnerable in court will be presented.
psychology tape 2003 1198
A critical view of neuropsychological testing Schutte JW
Barrientos GA
Neuropsychology is the fastest growing specialty in professional psychology, and is perhaps being aided in its growth by an increasing amount of litigation involving claims of mild traumatic brain injury. But are most neuropsychological tests scientifically sound measures of cognitive functioning, or accurate detectors of brain damage? This presentation will offer a critique of normative samples, diagnostic efficiency statistics, and cross-cultural applicability of some of the key neuropsychological assessment instruments. Neuropsychological tests will be evaluated in terms of Daubert criteria, and suggestions offered for more scientifically sound evaluations of cognitive dysfunction. Participants will become familiar with the problematic psychometrics of many neuropsychological tests, will be able to evaluate these tests in light of Daubert criteria, and will learn appropriate means of evaluating cognitive dysfunction in forensic settings.

psychology tape 2002 970
Computerized analysis of refusal of treatment: a preliminary study of the influence of neuropsychiatric traits on judicial decisions Lavid NE
Grayden TJ,
Gottschalk LA
Bechtel RJ
When involuntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients wish to leave the hospital or refuse nonemergency psychotropic medications they may petition the court. In the minorit y cases, judges disregard psychiatric recommendations and patients presentation in court has an effect on judicial decision. The aim of this preliminary study was to demonstrate the influence of neuropsychiatric traits on judicial decision and to determine which neuropsychiatric traits predict judicial decision. psychiatry journal 2002 1015
Death penalty mitigation factors: neurotoxicity Singer R Neurotoxicity can be a factor impairing the ability of a person to control his impulses, to think and plan, and to be competent to commit a crime. A person can be impaired from neurotoxicity occurring at any time during his life, including exposures prenatally, during childhood, or as an adult. The author will present the outline of recent testimony he gave regarding neurotoxicity and other mitigating factors in a case tried and adjudicated in Missouri, where the defendant, a confessed mass murderer, was spared the death penalty. Attendees will be able to identify common neurotoxic hazards and their impact on competency to commit crimes; will be sensitized to critical questions regarding toxicology variables affecting psychological function; will have greater insights into communicating with juries.

psychology tape 2002 983
Differential diagnosis decisions related to dementia - neuropsychological tests for recommendations in competency hearings Jacquin KM The term dementia is used to refer to any progressive degenerative brain disease that impacts cognitive functions, especially memory. Psychologist are often called upon to evaluate the mental fitness of elderly individuals for the purposes of a competency hearing. The psychologist must be able to find the subtle distinctions between disorders that may be mistaken for dementia (e.g., depression), forms of dementia that may be treatable, and typical types of dementia. This talk will describe the disorders that could cause an elderly person to seem incompetent, as well as the test scores and symptom patterns that allow a differential diagnosis to be made. Participants will be able to: outline the steps of a competency evaluation; describe normal aging, depression, vascular dementia, dementia symptoms caused by other disease processes, Alzheimer s dementia, and Lewy body variant; explain the prognosis of each of the above and name relevant treatments (if any); choose appropriate tests for making a differential diagnosis.
psychology tape 2002 980
Introduction to childhood neuropsychology Kastl AJ
Podboy JW
This presentation will outline the need for neuropsychological evaluation of children in the school and forensic settings. Areas to be evaluated in such contexts include overall intelligence, memory functions, abstract reasoning, visual motor skills, and sensory and motor functions. The particular tests which will be useful to assess such functions will be offered. The issue of brief versus complete batteries will also be discussed. Attendees will learn which tests are clinically useful to assess children (age 5-16) from a neuropsychological point of view. Attendees will also be able to review the work of child neuropsychologists based on the outline provided.
psychology tape 2002 969
The implications of Daubert on neuropsychological evidence in the assessment of remote mild traumatic brain injury Posthuma A Daubert and subsequent refinements Joiner and Kumho, as well as the Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) and Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) that have evolved from these decisions, continue to define the gate keeping function of the trial judge in the admission of scientific expert testimony. The impact of Daubert on forensic neuropsychological evidence is highly variable, even in those jurisdictions that have adopted Daubert. Many states still rely on the older Frye standards. Daubert based decisions on neuropsychological evidence have focused on the qualifications of the neuropsychologist; whether neuropsychology is a science or a specialized technical field; causality or the link between the test results, the alleged brain injury and the event (e.g. the motor vehicle accident, toxic exposure, or assault); and finally, whether neuropsychological testing meets sufficient evidentiary scientific standards. Our conclusion is that current neuropsychological practice relating to the forensic evaluation of remote (over one year post injury) mild traumatic brain injuries will be seriously challenged by Daubert. psychology journal 2002 1144
Benton Facial Recognition test scores-index of eyewitness accuracy Geiselman RE
Tubridy A
Young N
The Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) (1) has been used within the field of neurology to assess facial discrimination ability. Given the search for predictors of who would make a good eyewitness, there is some evidence that BFRT scores are correlated with face identification accuracy (2). The present experiments explored boundary conditions under which BFRT scores are useful in predicting eyewitness accuracy. Results showed that BFRT scores are most diagnostic when the eyewitnessing conditions are relatively poor. The probative value of BFRT scores as legal evidence is discussed. psychology journal 2001 812
Effects of cultural experience on neuropsychological performance in forensic population Selby MJ A battery of 27 neuropsychological. tests was administered to 225 adult male felons with similar age and educational level to investigate the effects of cultural background on test performance. Analysis of variance showed significant performance differences between ethnic groups on 37% of the measures. Analysis of statistical power showed that in each case where power exceeded .60, significant differences between groups were found. Results support the presence of significant performance differences between ethnic groups, and the need for the development of separate norms for ethnic groups within forensic settings.
psychology journal 2001 803
Forensic psychiatric issues related to the elderly May RD When the elderly are implicated in civil or criminal cases, either as defendant or plaintiff, it is essential that a complete neuropsychiatric evaluation be conducted in addition to gathering information to address the relevant legal issue. Psychiatrists involvement becomes invaluable to assist the courts and relevant forensic issues may include: undue influence, making a will, handling one s finances, sanity, and a multitude of competencies. psychiatry tapes 2001 841
Forensic skills- mental state and mitigation in criminal cases for the defense McClain VR Speaker highlights unique applications of expert services in two criminal cases. The first case involves retrospective analysis of mental state during a plea of nolo contendere in a post-conviction case; the second illustrates expert services in providing mitigating factors relevant for both the guilt and sentencing phases in a triple homicide case. Psychological and neuropsychological test results are presented, coupled with relevant mitigating factors to provide the basis for providing expert services. Learning objectives: to identify possible applications of forensic assessment and expert skills in mitigation, and creative and proactive approaches in forensic evaluation in criminal cases.

psychology tape 2001 865
Neuropsychiatric aspects of deception Oepen G
In forensic psychiatry, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of different factors contributing to a phenomenon or behavior, ranging from the psychological to the organic. Knowledge of neuropsychiatric factors may thus help the forensic psychiatrist to better appreciate the forces at work in patients who deceive and thus enlighten the lawyers and the jury, without however being able to fully explain the complex phenomenon of deception.
psychiatry journal 2001 750
Absence of loss of consciousness does not imply absence of brain injury Nussbaum M
Nussbaum D
An ongoing controversy in forensic neuropsychological assessments involves whether significant loss of consciousness is required for occurrence of brain damage and resultant cognitive difficulties. Those believing in this prerequisite consider patient complaints as suspect and better explained by malingering, exaggerating, resulting from a previously existing (although undiagnosed) psychiatric disorder, medications, or pain. Attendees will learn about some mechanisms of brain injury, and why an absence of loss of consciousness alone should never be taken as "proof" that brain injury has not occurred. psychology tape 2000 779
Neurobehavioral disorders following atypical chemical exposures Singer R There are many chemicals with neurotoxic properties that have been inadequately researched, but which are widely disseminated. Chlorine, for example, has few studies describing its potential neurotoxic properties. However, any substance that can irritate the respiratory mechanism sufficiently to cause a hypoxic condition could cause permanent brain injury, if the hypoxic condition deprives critical brain cells of enough oxygen to survive. For adjudication, courts need to assess the consistency of the injury with neurotoxicity, and the potential of the product to cause neurotoxicity. Attendees will be able to describe methodology for assessing the probability that a neurobehavioral illness was caused by a chemical exposure.
psychology tape 2000 781
Neuropsychological evaluations of Asian linguistic minorities in mild head injury litigation Iverson GL The purpose of this article is to provide a brief review and commentary on some of the issues that are most germane to the practice of conducting neuropsychological evaluations with Asian linguistic minorities within the context of head injury litigation. Conducting neuropsychological evaluations with persons who do not speak the language of the examiner is fraught with problems identified in the literature. psychology journal 2000 1465
Performing assessments involving cocaine for the courts Nussbaum D Forensic clinicians are frequently called upon to assess individuals who have abused substances, including cocaine. This talk will familiarize the clinician with the underlying neurobiology of cocaine, and how it influences consciousness, emotions, motivation, violence and sexual behavior. Selected interactions between cocaine and other drugs will be summarized. This information will be integrated within the framework of drafting a focussed forensic assessment. Attendees will learn the basic biology of cocaine s action within the brain and how it can affect behavior. This knowledge will then be translated into ramifications for writing accurate forensic reports. psychology tape 2000 782
The use of flexible and fixed batteries in neuropsychology Kastl AJ This presentation will present the advantages of a flexible battery as well as its disadvantages. One model for such a battery is presented by Lezak; it does require two hour sessions, however, and most flexible batteries are completed in two hours. This approach will be contrasted with a fixed battery, such as the Halstead Reitan Neuropsychological Battery, in terms of advantages and disadvantages. A recent court decision concerning these two approaches will be discussed. Attendees will be able to explain the major functions which should be assessed in any neuropsychological assessment, and will be able to make an informed decision concerning which approach to take in a given case. psychology tape 2000 775
Traumatic brain injury and postconcussion states - problems in nomenclature Davis H Psychiatric sequelae of minor head injuries include postconcussion states and traumatic brain injury. Problems in nomenclature are addressed with special emphasis on minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI), a term which is not universally accepted. The danger of iatrogenic morbidity is emphasized when dealing with the victim of a minor head injury. Without a pre-injury history, no single test is effective in establishing the diagnosis of a minor head injury but neuroimaging is still the modality for establishing suspected brain or structural damage. The use of nonvalidating psychometric testing procedures is a major flaw in the diagnosis of any suspected head injury. psychiatry journal 2000 703
Violence in the media - a symposium Gottschalk L What is feeding the growth of violence in America? Parents, educators, and public officials persist in trying to get to the root of the problem. Their concerns have been picked up by the media and reflected to wide audiences throughout the country. Members of the legal profession and behavioral scientists have an ethical and scientific responsibility to participate in these inquiries. There are many factors contributing to violent behavior, including our genetic roots. The immediate intent of this essay is to focus on important but uniformly ignored environmental factors. For the moment let the reader focus on the entertainment industry, supported by today s media. A recent highly publicized product of the film industry is the movie ironically titled American Beauty, a production that has garnered considerable approval in the form of critical raves and Oscars. In entertainment drama these days the screenplay story line is the vehicle that carts the poison which, when consumed, produces the deadly effect: violent visual scenes that excite the human genome, setting off a chain of neurochemical events that lead to discordant, erratic or violent behavior on the part of some viewers. The modeling of monstrous individuals, fiercely antisocial or with severe mental disorders, by trained actors in combination with the artistry of a brilliant director, credible scenery, professional filming and realistic sounds can elevate the written script to an emotional level of drama so violent that certain viewers, often the very young, may become desensitized to extreme aggression or stimulated to the point of reenacting hostile scenes they have viewed.
psychiatry journal 2000 998
Computerized content analysis of the Unabomber's writings Gottschalk L The trial of Theodore John Kaczynski riveted public attention. Dr. Kaczynski's "Manifesto" was published by the New York Times, but not his mathematics treatises and personal writings found in his remote cabin, texts that for the most part were written in a coded, disguised form. This study focuses on the disparate contents of both Dr. Kaczynski's Manifesto and selected other writings found in the Montana cabin; it also describes the findings of a computerized artificial intelligence content analysis program used to measure neuropsychiatric dimensions of the Unabomber's writings.
psychiatry journal 1999 648
Long-term psychological care for children suffering head trauma-later impact Stewart DL A case involving a 5 year old boy with head trauma and significant neurocognitive, behavioral and perceptual deficits for one year, and fully recovering during the following year. Literature is reviewed showing that children recovering from such measurable deficits have intellectual, emotional and legal problems in later years at a much higher rate than the general population. psychology tape 1999 423
Malingering on the WAIS-R among disability claimants and applicants for vocational assistance Williams RW The current study examined the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (WAIS-R) performance of disability claimants and applicants for vocational assistance. The clinical records of 50 applicants for disability and 50 applicants for vocational assistance were reviewed. All patients had been referred for evaluation because of suspected neuropsychological deficits. The group applying for disability performed more poorly overall as predicted. The WAIS-R malingering index suggested by Mittenberg et al. (1) produced a 30 percent estimate of malingering, made up of almost equal numbers of both groups. Those suspected of malingering by this index showed better overall intellectual performance. The results were discussed in terms of the potential clinical usefulness of the Mittenberg et al. index. psychology journal 1999 606
Plaintiff and defense referred disability-how to approach an evaluation Glaser D Private psychiatric disability claims are being denied at an increasing rate. This increase in denial also parallels a substantial increase in the percentage of psychiatric claims relative to other types of claims. More often than not, those denied claimants (who have paid large premiums) are highly motivated to challenge the denials. There is a very real need for competent evaluations from both the insurance company side (defense) as well as the perspective of the denied claimant (plaintiff). Unlike neurologic and orthopedic driven claims, psychiatric cases present some unique challenges that a forensic examiner must confront directly, fairly, and as objectively as possible. Irrespective of who retains the services of the forensic examiner, there is a framework that needs to be followed to answer the ultimate questions of disability. Strategies and pitfalls will be discussed. Participants will learn how to approach an evaluation, what records are critical, how to formulate a strong report, what deposition testimony is most relevant. Aware of the pitfalls in disability evaluations, the evaluator will be less likely to fall prey to the expected adversarial legal tactics.
y claims from both insurance company lawyers as well as lawyers representing plaintiffs.
psychiatry tapes 1999 443
Some neurological effects of diabetes mellitus Podboy J
Kastl AJ
During the last decade, a substantial literature has emerged concerning the effects of Type I (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus on neurocognitive functioning. Most of the literature indicates that hypoglycemia influences brain functioning due to the inability of the brain to utilize oxygen at low blood glucose levels. In adults, case histories indicate that patients with severe hypoglycemia perform more poorly than others on visual motor coordination tests and generally their IQ scores are lowered. Furthermore, some patients show mild dementia. Such results reflect the importance of obtaining a comprehensive medical history when performing neuropsychological examinations. The forensic implications of patients presenting with this condition will also be reviewed through case study.

psychology tape 1999 420
Basic principles of forensic neuropsychological toxicology Singer R Testimony concerning the neurobehavioral effects of substances toxic to the nervous system has become a critical element in toxic tort litigation. As awareness of the potential neurotoxic hazard of many substances increases, the need for testimony in litigation will also increase. Plaintiffs alleging damage from neurotoxic substances require a neuropsychological examination by a practitioner knowledgeable of the effects of the substance(s) in question. Following this presentation, participants will be able to 1) identify the main classes of neurotoxic substances, 2) diagnose the primary symptoms of neurotoxicity, 3) identify the basic principles of neuropsychological toxicology. psychology tape 1998 316
Comparison of neuropsychological performance in forensic and nonforensic populations Selby MJ The present study compared neuropsychological test performance in a forensic population with data from several community-based normative samples. Means and standard deviations for 225 incarcerated male felons were obtained for 39 neuropsychological measures. Using a series of one- sample, two-tailed t tests, the total forensic sample was found to perform significantly worse (p < .001) on 25 of 39 measures (64 percent) compared to nonforensic norms adjusted for age and/or education. Although results may be interpreted as indicating the presence of significant cognitive impairment in individuals within a forensic setting, findings are more consistent with the hypothesis that these individuals represent a unique population whose performance on neuropsychological tests is significantly affected by psychosocial and situational factors. Consequently, available normative data which is based largely on the performance of white, well educated, upper middle-class subjects may not provide a valid measure of neuropsychological functioning for forensic populations. psychology journal 1998 620
Coping with conflicting neuropsychological testimony-reports, testimony Kastl A Conflicting neuropsychological testimony appears with increasing frequency in both depositions and courtroom testimony. Some testimony is based on a brief review of the history and short mental status examination. Other testimony is based primarily on interpretation of a few neuropsychological tests, or on administration of 20 or 30 tests. The authors summarize recent experiences and make 10 suggestions for reviewing the work of other neuropsychologists as well as one s own. Participants will learn from actual case examples how to evaluate reports of others, how to improve the quality of their own reports, and how to approach previous testimony of other neuropsychologists. psychology tape 1998 319
False positive errors on selected tests of malingering Pachana NA Select neuropsychological tests (e.g., Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test - Revised [WAIS-R] and Wechsler Memory Scales - Revised [WMS-R]) and various malingering tests (Rey 15-Item and Rey 15-Word Recognition tests, Dot Counting, and the Portland Digit Recognition Test) were administered to a young female patient presenting with Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and no indication of exaggeration or feigning of performance. The patient s mixed results on tests of malingering suggest that these malingering tests differ in their sensitivity to actual memory impairment, with performance on some measures (i.e., Rey 15-Item and Rey 15-Word Recognition tests) clearly contaminated by the presence of organic amnesia, but with other tests (i.e., Dot Counting, Portland Digit Recognition, and malingering probability) appearing impervious to the effects of true memory impairment. psychology journal 1998 614
Neuropsychological, psychological test data- basic concerns Monguio I
Emerick K
The constructs in psychodynamic psychology and neuropsychology appear on the surface, if not antithetical, at least merely complementary. Regarding the Rorschach, it is a concern in neuropsychology that organic changes may lead to perceptual errors that may lead to misinterpretations of an individual s responses to the ink blots. Exner's system of scoring and interpreting the Rorschach inkblot information offers the most rigorous scientific approach among psychodynamic assessment instruments, but the basic concerns remain. A case study will be presented of a defendant whose Rorschach and WAIS-R profiles were compared. The congruency between both interpretations was a surprise to both authors. Although a single case may merely be a curiosity, it suggests that more research is needed. Participants will be presented with challenges regarding the use of multiple assessment methods and will be encouraged to compare psychological and neuropsychological data. psychology tape 1998 312
PTSD- clinical review of 307 cases Pope GG Manifestations of posttraumatic stress disorders do not always follow exposure to traumatic event. Features of PTSD include: reexperiencing of the event in the form of nightmares, flashbacks, or intrusive traumatic recollections; numbing of emotional responses with avoidance of traumatic memories, and hyper arousal accompanied by insomnia, irritability, impulsivity and explosiveness with concurrent manifestations of anxiety and depression. The presenter will review current knowledge concerning the disorder and its neurobiological aspects; discuss problems in diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and will address issues related to disability rating.

psychiatry tapes 1998 427
The WAIS-III and WMS-III in psychological and neuropsychological evaluations Shutte JW The third editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III) represent a substantial change from their predecessors. Aside from the expected adjustments in stimulus content and presentation, changes have been made in core subtests, scoring, and interpretation. Since forensic psychologists may certainly be challenged in court for using outdated tests, it is important for professionals to become familiar with these new instruments, the ways in which they differ from their predecessors, and the types of data they produce. Implications for neuropsychological testing will be discussed.

psychology tape 1998 311
Two computerized neuropsychological tests used to screen forensic clients Nussbaum D Forensic assessments often hinge on facets of competency that go beyond general ability testing such as IQ. Cognitive and neuropsychology have developed a plethora of tests to evaluate succeedingly purer facets of cognition. Constraints based on time, economics and practitioner experience preclude routine administration of a broad neuropsychological battery. Computerized neuropsychological testing is an efficient approach to screening patients for intensive neuropsychological investigations. Use of MicroCog and the IVA will be presented. Participants will learn a) the domains and subtests covered by MicroCog, b) the IVA task and the derived scales, c) basic interpretation of the two tests, d) conclusions to be drawn from the tests and their limits, and e) practical considerations in contemplating implementation of these techniques in one s practice. psychology tape 1998 313
A sexual harassment case-consensual affair of paralegal with partner of law firm Glaser D Mrs. C., a paralegal who worked for the law firm of A,B,C & D had a consensual affair with one of the partners of the law firm while both were married. Ultimately, she filed a sexual harassment claim against her employer. Throughout her employment, the course of the lawsuit (including serious allegations and outright lies by plaintiff), and the period of the actual jury trial, a nonstop drama was played out that involved breaking into the psychiatrist's office, misinforming the neurologist engaged to evaluate her neurologically impaired child from the affair that the child had a stillborn twin, and the series of seven successive attorneys who would initially be actively litigating her case only to be alienated by this woman s style. This expert was actively involved from the early stages of the case with the development of the defense themes, review of copious records and documents, the performance of an IME, the production of a detailed report, and actual trial testimony. While the fact pattern involves actual events or allegations that raised serious liability concerns on the part of the defense team, the decision not to settle and to go to trial ultimately was rewarded by a defense verdict. The successful outcome of this case reveals theme development, the use of the record review and psychiatric examination, and the collaboration of expert and attorney that can be a model to emulate. psychiatry tapes 1997 390
Adult head injuries and sequelae Davis H The acute and long-term effects of head injury are described and include psychiatric sequelae which occur in approximately twenty-five percent of such patients. The greatest controversy about chronicity of symptoms and the relevance of psychological and physical factors in their causation occurs in the minor head injury with particular emphasis on the Postconcussion Syndrome. Organic factors are chiefly relevant in the earliest stages of mild to moderate injuries whereas ongoing symptoms are often prolonged by secondary complex neurotic development. A full neuropsychiatric assessment is still the major factor in evaluating the severity and outcome in any head injury particularly where the injury is minor. Undue investigations may result in iatrogenic morbidity and note should be made that patients with psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, may perform as poorly on neuropsychological tests as those with structural brain injury. psychiatry journal 1997 2091
Analyses of data on sexually active clergy- the molesters of youth identified Camargo RJ To this author s knowledge, these are the first published factor analyses of data related to sexual behavior among male clergy referred for residential care. The general purpose of the large scale retrospective study was to examine the factors related to sexual object choice and youth molestation specifically, and as such the current results define the clergy youth molester as having a unique constellation of neuropsychological, personality, and vocational variables. A large scale retrospective study of 1,322 male clergy referred to a residential center was undertaken, and two samples of those sexually active with minors 19 years old or younger were generated. psychology journal 1997 662
Biologically derived model for predicting and treating tendencies toward future violence Nussbaum D Courts are increasingly requesting predictions of future dangerousness. The animal aggression literature has identified between five and eight distinct types of aggression, each with a distinct neurobiological substrate. An hypothesized human analog model suggests that tendencies toward violent responding can be typed in a similar fashion in people. psychiatry journal 1997 696
Causality determination in workers' compensation and personal injury contexts Schultz I Causality determination in the workers' compensation and personal injury contexts is a complex and multifaceted investigative clinical task for which few guidelines exist in forensic psychology and neuropsychology. The presentation will critically analyze current causality determination and causation paradigms in forensic psychological practice with particular emphasis on the distinctions between legal and clinical interpretations of causality. Participants will learn step-by-step delineation of best causality determination practices in personal injury and workers' compensation cases and how to successfully avoid common pitfalls in psychological causality determination. psychology tape 1997 356
Fact and fiction in neuropsychological disability assessment (some buzzing problems in beginning) Coen DJ Disability opinions based on psychological and neuropsychological test data are too often compromised by a lack of predictive validity. Frequently the test data and the associated diagnoses are insufficient in isolation for predicting the ability of the patient to meet the normal daily demands of social and occupational functioning. This is the problem of ecological validity. This presentation will outline the steps necessary to maximize the ecological validity of disability assessments which examine neuropsychological impairments. psychology tape 1997 355
Legal standards governing admission of psychiatric testimony Philipsborn J Does the fact that a psychiatrist is board certified, with a number of years of experience, necessarily qualify him or her to testify as to whether a patient is properly diagnosed as suffering, for example, from Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy? Is any psychiatrist able to qualify to testify about the meaning of neuropsychological testing? Can a psychiatrist automatically qualify to testify about the effects of a certain psychotropic medication? The author, who has lectured and published on the law of the foundation for the expression of a psychiatric opinion in court, will cover the various legal standards applied in federal and state courts, and address specific questions that are frequently raised when the foundation for an expert psychiatric opinion is being questioned. psychiatry tapes 1997 386
Postconcussional disorder and mild traumatic brain injury update Anderson S PCD was recently included in the appendix of DSM-IV and is one of the more controversial diagnostic entities in forensic psychiatry. One school of thought views it as a functional disorder, another as organic brain damage. An overview of recent research will be presented, including psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurology, rehabilitation medicine, radiology and pathology. Medical legal issues for forensic psychiatrists will be emphasized. Psychiatrists will develop a comprehensive understanding of PCD and MTBI to be better able to provide medical legal opinion. Important questions will be answered, e.g., Does loss of consciousness need to occur? psychiatry tapes 1997 385
Violence in schizophrenic patients-the role of positive psychotic symptoms and frontal lobe impairment Krawkowski M The purpose of this study was to identify psychiatric symptoms and neurological impairments associated with physical assaults in schizophrenic patients. Newly admitted violent schizophrenic patients and nonviolent controls were assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Patients were followed for 4 weeks; some patients showed marked resolution of assaults and were classified as transiently violent (N=32), others remained assaultive throughout and were categorized as persistently violent (N=27). At the end of 4 weeks, all patients received a psychiatric and neurological assessment.
Initially, both the transiently and persistently violent patients presented with more severe positive psychotic symptoms than the nonviolent controls. While the transiently violent patients showed somewhat better resolution of these symptoms, the two groups differed significantly only in frontal lobe function. Frontal impairment was more severe in the persistently violent patients; it was positively related to the positive psychotic symptoms, while no such association was found in the transiently violent group. The positive psychotic symptoms appear to be qualitatively different in the two groups. This finding has important implications for treatment.
psychiatry journal 1997 1071
Violence in schizophrenic patients-the role of psychotic symptoms and frontal lobe impairment Krakowski M A positive association has been found between violence and neurological dysfunction as measured by various neurological and neuropsychological measures in various populations . Special attention has been paid to frontal impairment. Frontal dysfunction as indicated by positron emission tomography has been reported in seriously violent offenders pleading not guilty by reason of insanity or incompetent to stand trial, and in psychiatric inpatients with a history of arrests for violent behavior. EEG slowing over the frontocentral areas has been reported in habitually aggressive drug abusers. psychiatry journal 1997 691
Is ADHD a neurological disorder? Bloomingdale L no abstract at this time psychology tape 1996 1272
Issues in the neuropsychological evaluation of Latinos for forensic purposes Monguio I Hispanic defendants are charged in disproportionate numbers, claims author, advancing that some 90 percent of Hispanic defendants charged with child molestation fail to meet legal definitional criteria. psychology tape 1996 560
Psychiatric or neurological disorders? Bloomingdale L no abstract at this time psychology tape 1996 1271
Violent crime in psychiatric patients-relationship to frontal lobe impairment Krakowski M
This study found an association between violent crime in the community and impairment on neuropsychological tasks, specifically the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and psychomotor tasks.

psychiatry journal 1996 1069
Neuropsychological consequences of silicone gel breast implants Kastl A
Klein SH
no abstract at this time psychology tape 1995 584
Neuropsychological evaluation and testimony- traumatic brain injury Williams no abstract at this time psychiatry tapes 1995 630
Psychopharmacological treatment of aggressive behavior Morselli PL In modern societies aggressiveness and interpersonal violence are growing at an alarming level. Experimental data suggest the existence of a biological substrate underlying aggressive behaviors and several neurotransmitters appear to be involved. Considering the possibility of a pharmacological treatment, a distinction has to be made between "psychiatric emergencies with violence" and "acute aggressiveness or repeated aggressive behavior." psychiatry journal 1995 1053
The psychological signatures of malingering-assessing the legitimacy of claims Owens RG A review of the voluntary production and presentation of false or grossly exaggerated psychological symptoms produced in pursuit of financial compensation in personal injury cases is presented within the context of objective test data. It describes the statistical treatment of test data when compared to relevant data from learned treatises. Data as generated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in cases of closed head injuries are presented. A discussion of the difficulty in malingering impairment on neuropsychological measures such as the Tactile Performance Test, the Tactile Finger Localization Test, the Trailmaking Test and the Speech Sounds Perception test is presented. The article's intent is not to show that malingering can be proven to exist beyond any doubt, but rather that, with special attention to signatures of deceit, the index of suspicion of its presence may well be raised to a high degree of probability in the minds of reasonable persons.
psychology journal 1995 1100
Clergy who commit sexual offenses-motivation and special treatment needs Langevin R
Lang R
Little systematic work has appeared to evaluate what factors may be peculiar to the clergy who commit sexual offenses, primarily against youths and children. Two groups of ministers and priests who committed sexual acts against minors were examined for sexual history and preference, substance abuse, mental illness, personality, neuropsychological impairment, and history of violence. Noteworthy differences in the groups were the absence of violence and antisocial features among the clergy. Even so, the groups were comparable in terms of presence of sexual deviation and substance abuse. Case examples will illustrate the special treatment needs for clergy that differ from those of sex offenders in general, psychological impact of false allegations on clergy accused of sexual offenses, and changing perception of priests and ministers by the congregation and victims who have been exposed to church sex scandals.
psychology tape 1994 541
Cocaine use and forensic psychological assessments Strickland TL The patient who presents for forensic evaluation of a psychiatric or neurological complaint and is concurrent for a history of substance abuse has generally received only modest attention in the clinical practice literature. Significantly more clinical attention has focused on the neurobehavioral sequelae of more pronounced brain insults. However, current research efforts on cocaine and other drugs of abuse have greatly expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying addiction as well as contributing to some exciting new assessment techniques. This presentation is designed to describe recent research findings related to the neuropsychological and brain blood flow consequences of cocaine and other drugs (including antidepressants and antianxiolytics). Emphasis is also given to the clinical, forensic and practical implications of psychoactive substance-induced organic brain syndromes.

psychology tape 1994 538
Common errors using neuropsychological tests- avoiding consequent embarrassment in court Sindelar S
Wilson K
Accurate interpretation of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery depends on accurate standardized administration. Errors, sloppy techniques, examiner "drift," and poor training often result in incorrect data collection. To avoid invalid results and consequent misdiagnoses, courtroom or deposition embarrassment, or incorrect data collection for research or communication purposes, the neuropsychologist and testing technicians must conduct standardized, error-free administrations. This presentation describes the common errors found in HRNTB administration, forensic testimony and even professional workshops. Correct procedures are demonstrated or presented. Primary focus is on the Aphasia Screening Examination and the Sensory-Perceptual Examination. psychology tape 1994 539
Consistent areas of omission in neuropsychological assessment Kastl AJ P
Podboy JW
In the course of their practices, the authors have reviewed several hundred forensic neuropsychological reports. Though the level of sophistication in these reports has improved considerably in recent years, significant areas of weakness remain. Participants will learn how to improve the quality of the history taken in neuropsychological evaluations and ensure that the scope of the evaluation is sufficiently comprehensive.

psychology tape 1994 545
Developing defense teams for appellate death penalty cases Woods GW While there is a marked increase in the use of psychological testing as well as neuropsychiatric/neuroradiological findings in pre- conviction preparation, often there is no template for the utilization of these technologies. Changes in the laws as they pertain to appeals, specifically federal appeals in death penalty cases, reflect a need to prepare mental health defenses in an even more stringent manner if they are to survive the appeals courts. The speaker suggests that a team approach be used in evaluating defendants, utilizing a small but select group of specialists, at the pre and/or post-conviction hearings. It will be shown that utilization of such teams is both extremely useful and a cost-effective way to establish a solid mental health defense that can withstand appeal review. The speaker will discuss the important role that the forensic psychiatrist can play in orchestrating such teams in legal defense cases.

psychiatry tapes 1994 519
Exposure to toxins-- use of neuropsychological tests with other diagnostic techniques Veraldi DM Neuropsychological impairment can occur following exposure to toxins. However, it is often difficult to assess to what degree the impairment is due to exposure. A history of head trauma or alcohol abuse can cause impairment or can attenuate response to toxic exposure. Degenerative neurologic diseases might be present. Emotional conditions can contribute to poor performance. The purpose of this presentation is to aid forensic neuropsychologists to use data from their testing in conjunction with other methods. A comprehensive examination should be conducted in cooperation with a neurologist as neurologic exams, blood screens, PET scans, and QEEGs can be used to help determine what caused impairment in functioning.
psychology tape 1994 543
Misrepresentation by the testifying neuropsychologist Nemeth A In the courtroom, an ethical issue is raised when a neuropsychologist, swayed by his bias, allows, or even encourages, an attorney to implant doubt about the other expert's findings in the minds of the triers of fact by misrepresenting his or her approach as being methodologically unsound, when in fact it is not. The vulnerability of the plaintiff's case to a biased presentation of the issue will be illustrated. Suggestions for assisting one's attorney in bringing to light the other party's biased position will be offered. psychology tape 1994 529
The mental health evaluation in capital cases-standards of practice Liebert DS
Foster DV
At the request of counsel for Dan Jones, I conducted a psychiatric examination of Mr. Jones at Walla Walla State Penitentiary over a two day period on July 1 and 2, 1992. The purpose of my interview was to determine Mr. Jones mental status currently and at the time of the offenses for which he has been sentenced to death; the factors that influenced his development and functioning; the reliability of statements he gave to law enforcement officers; his ability to aid and assist counsel and to understand rationally and factually the proceedings against him; his competency to testify; his ability to make knowing and intelligent waivers of his rights including his right to counsel, to trial, to the confrontation and cross-examination of witnesses; and the presence, severity and effect of child abuse.,, This article proposes standards of practice in mental health evaluations of capital cases. Without valid, reliable standards and criteria there is no adequate safeguard present to assure that the trier of fact will have the data needed to make an informed sentencing decision. The standard proposed is widely accepted as appropriate in standard mental health clinical evaluations, but is frequently not applied in capital cases. We propose that the following five steps should be used in all capital cases: 1) the collection of an accurate medical, developmental, psychological and social history, gathered from multiple sources; 2) a thorough physical and neurological examination; 3) a complete psychiatric and mental status examination 4) diagnostic studies, including psychometrically based approaches to personality assessment, neuropsychological testing, appropriate brain scans, and blood tests or genetic studies; 5) the use of other specific specialists and additional appropriate tests as indicated. psychiatry journal 1994 625
The use of psychological tests to detect malingered intellectual impairment Morrison MW The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that commercially available, standardized tests can be powerful tools for identifying malingered intellectual impairment. Unlike many of the techniques advocated for this purpose, the method presented in this article does not require specialized training in neuropsychology and it is fairly easy to implement. By calculating the probability that particularly low scores could be achieved by guessing, the results obtained on psychological tests can be used to establish malingering. Probability computations can be used with almost any test which has a true/false or multiple-choice format. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary TestRevised (PPVTR) is particularly useful for establishing malingered intellectual impairment. An explanation of how to use the PPVTR to detect malingering is provided and the relevant portions of actual forensic reports are included as examples psychology journal 1994 717
Atypical response patterns on a target detection test- signs of malingering Rosen WG A target detection test, originally designed to examine sustained attention and response speed in brain-damaged patients, unexpectedly revealed response patterns and an error type in persons suspected of malingering. The error type has occurred with such low frequency in persons with known brain damage that its appearance in the performances of suspected malingerers is highly suggestive of faked dysfunction. The test and performances of a non-brain-damaged sample, brain-damaged samples, and suspected malingerers is presented. Participants will learn about extant methods of detecting malingering with neuropsychological assessment techniques and the potential contribution the target detection test may make to this difficult process.
Wilma G. Rosen, Ph.D., Columbia University, New York, NY
psychology journal 1993 628
Enhancement of psychological testimony with the use of neurolinguistic programming techniques Mayers KS This article describes the use of neurolinguistic programming techniques in preparing information to be presented in a courtroom setting and in maximizing the effectiveness of testimony. Three cases are included, in which emphasis is placed on obtaining and presenting sensory-oriented descriptions and findings. These techniques have the capability to enhance the listeners' ability to relate to the subject of the testimony, to maintain attention and to increase the listeners' interest in the material presented. psychology journal 1993 1098
Forensic neuropsychological toxicology Singer R Psychologists should be alert as to possible neurotoxic causes of psychological disorders. Neuropsychologists are asked to diagnose patients with psychological disorders who have been exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. Such cases often involve litigation, so the neuropsychologist should be prepared to testify as to the findings and/or provide the appropriate referral.

psychology tape 1993 879
Homicidal thoughts and racism in a workers' compensation population-detection test Applebaum G A target detection test, originally designed to examine sustained attention and response speed in brain damaged patients, unexpectedly revealed response patterns and an error type in persons suspected of malingering. The error type has occurred with such low frequency in persons with known brain damage that its appearance in the performances of suspected malingerers is highly suggestive of faked dysfunction. The test and performances of a non-brain-damaged sample, brain damaged samples, and suspected malingerers is presented. Participants will learn about extant methods of detecting malingering with neuropsychological assessment techniques and the potential contribution the target detection test may make to this difficult process.

psychology tape 1993 265
Intentional misuse of standard psychological tests in complex trials Podboy J
Kastl A
The field of psychological assessment emerged in academic and clinical settings. When psychological tests are applied to forensic matters, great care must be exercised in administration and interpretation. However, we have found many examples of misuse. Unintentional misuses of tests include: lack of knowledge of the reliability and validity of given tests, limited experience in administration and interpretation, failure to give tests in their entirety, over reliance on a single instrument or test score, failure to correlate the test results with other sources of data, and failure to consider the possibility of malingering. The intentional misuse of tests is even more distressing. In some child custody cases, we find deliberate misrepresentation of the computerized test reports of the parents, in order to "fit" the preconceived impressions of the psychologist. In the field of neuropsychology, some practitioners give so many tests that a few will fall in impaired ranges to apparently prove that brain damage is present. In certain capital punishment cases, practitioners verbally agree to discover some level of psychopathology. Both forms of misuse must be controlled if we are to maintain credibility in the legal arena.
psychology journal 1993 190
Neuropsychiatry and neuroimaging for the forensic psychiatrist (1 of 2) Orrison WW Neuropschiatry and neuroimaging continue to evolve at an ever increasing pace. The newer imaging techniques, such as MR Angiography, Dynamic MR, and Functional MR have become a part of the routine practice of neuroradiology. A fundamental review of neuroanatomy, functional neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and the latest neuroimaging techniques is intended to serve as an introduction to this ever expanding field.
psychiatry tapes 1993 896
Neuropsychiatry and neuroimaging for the forensic psychiatrist (2 of 2) Orrison WW Neuropschiatry and neuroimaging continue to evolve at an ever increasing pace. The newer imaging techniques, such as MR Angiography, Dynamic MR, and Functional MR have become a part of the routine practice of neuroradiology. A fundamental review of neuroanatomy, functional neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and the latest neuroimaging techniques is intended to serve as an introduction to this ever expanding field.
psychiatry tapes 1993 242
Neuropsychiatry and neuroimaging for the forensic psychiatrist (3 of 3) Orrison WW Neuropschiatry and neuroimaging continue to evolve at an ever increasing pace. The newer imaging techniques, such as MR Angiography, Dynamic MR, and Functional MR have become a part of the routine practice of neuroradiology. A fundamental review of neuroanatomy, functional neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and the latest neuroimaging techniques is intended to serve as an introduction to this ever expanding field. (3 tapes)
psychiatry tapes 1993 922
Neuropsychological evaluation of neurotoxin exposure Froming KB
Riley N
Cognitive and emotional dysfunction secondary to neurotoxin exposure has gained increasing attention in both civil and criminal forensic arenas. Brain damage may occur not only in response to home or workplace exposure,but through abuse of inhalant solvents or fetal exposure to maternally ingested toxic substances. In evaluation, the competent clinician must be aware of potential sources of pre, peri and postnatal neurotoxic exposure, presenting signs and symptoms, and alternative explanations for deficits, including malingering. Civil and criminal private practice cases are presented and methods of documenting exposure.

psychology tape 1993 255
The intentional and unintentional misuse of standard psychological tests in complex trials Podboy JW
Kastl AJ
The field of psychological assessment emerged in academic and clinical settings. When psychological tests are applied to forensic matters, great care must be exercised in administration and interpretation. However, we have found many examples of misuse. Unintentional misuses of tests include: lack of knowledge of the reliability and validity of given tests, limited experience in administration and interpretation, failure to give tests in their entirety, over-reliance on a single instrument or test score, failure to correlate the test results with other sources of data, and failure to consider the possibility of malingering. The intentional misuse of tests is even more distressing. In some child custody cases, we find deliberate misrepresentation of the computerized test reports of the parents, in order to "fit" the preconceived impressions of the psychologist. In the field of neuropsychology, some practitioners give so many tests that a few will fall in impaired ranges to apparently prove that brain damage is present. In certain capital punishment cases, practitioners verbally agree to discover some level of psychopathology. Both forms of misuse must be controlled if we are to maintain credibility in the legal arena.
psychology journal 1993 347
Understanding pain in relation to personal injury cases Pearce KI A brief description of the neurophysiology and anatomy related to subjective experience of pain will be provided. From this basis the role of personality, stress and life events in causing, sustaining or controlling pain is described. Pain will be seen to be both the most complex and the most typical of the somatoform disorders. Examples from an extensive clinical forensic practice will illustrate the legal relevance of the issues raised. Participants will learn how to identify and rate in significance etiological facts involved in the subjective experience of pain and how to utilize the adjunctive assistance of expert system reporting to help in achieving objective data in quantifying pain.

psychiatry tape 1993 251
Use of neuropsychological evaluation with an NGRI plea Veraldi D Neuropsychological evaluation was used with an individual who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and who had committed murder while influenced by his delusions. Evaluation results demonstrated impairment in neuropsychological functioning despite normal intelligence. This information was used relevant to competency, mens rea, and mitigating circumstances. Participants will learn that a high percentage of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia exhibit demonstrable impairment in neuropsychological functioning.

psychology tape 1993 261
Validity limits of forensic neuropsychological testing Posthuma A,
Doward J
Neuropsychological assessments for civil tort forensic purposes have filled a void created by the limits of brain image technology and the complexity of brain behavior mechanisms. However, neuropsychological testing, while validated in some clinical and research settings, is largely of untested validity in forensic applications. This article describes some of the major concerns and suggests directions for future research. psychology journal 1993 164
Diffuse brain damage- psychological testimony in the personal injury case Nemeth AJ In personal injury litigation, the author's expertise has often been solicited in cases involving diffuse brain injuries resulting from head trauma, exposure to toxic substances, anoxia in near drowning accidents, or from general anesthesia used in surgery. If the clinical neuropsychologic testimony is based exclusively on psychometric findings, subtle cognitive deficits may go undetected. Furthermore, neurobehavioral impairment in personality functioning. psychology tape 1992 180
Use of "independent medical examinations" in forensic neuropsychology Evans RW Author examines increasing use of independent medical examinations in the field of clinical psychology and neuropsychology. Specifically, insurance companies are beginning to use second opinion examinations with increasing frequency in an effort to determine if the procedures employed and treatment offered are reasonable, necessary and directly related to the accident. Methods and fallacies of independent medical examinations are examined. psychology journal 1992 189
Vulnerabilities and corrective strategies in psychological and neuropsychological assessments Williams AD no abstract at this time psychology tape 1992 1335

Williams AD The field of neuropsychology shows substantial promise, and the quality of research and method are often a cut above that seen in many other areas of clinical psychology and psychiatry, says Jay Ziskin. Suggestions are made regarding a comprehensive approach to neuropsychological assessment. Relevant cases pertaining to the admissibility of a neuropsychologist's testimony are discussed. psychology tape 1991 175
Malingering in neuropsychological and emotional distress personal injury cases Lees-Haley PR Speaker offers suggestions for a more thorough and scientific method of screening for malingering. Clinical information presented by the author derives from private practice and personal injury cases. psychology tape 1991 162
Neuropsychological assessment of damages (mainly functional) in personal injury cases Williams AD The field of neuropsychology shows substantial promise, and the quality of research and method are often a cut above that seen in many other areas of clinical psychology and psychiatry, says Jay Ziskin. Suggestions are made regarding a comprehensive approach to neuropsychological assessment. Relevant cases pertaining to the admissibility of a neuropsychologist's testimony are discussed. psychology journal 1991 1751
Neuropsychological impairment associated with exposure to organic solvents Veraldi DM
Neuropsychological assessment in a private practice setting of individuals exposed to organic solvents on the job. Assessments were used to determine whether or not impairment existed, and determination was used as the basis for litigation. psychology tape 1991 172
Organic brain disorders and violent behavior Dupre J Traditional psychiatric evaluations have been grossly inadequate in diagnosing organic neurological factors involved in criminal behavior of a violent nature. These factors can be adequately elicited only by a diagnostic team, which includes a psychiatrist, neurologist, neuropsychologist, electroencephalographer and neuroradiologist. Diagnostic investigations should be undertaken at the time of the judicial proceedings and prior to sentencing as they constitute mitigating factors when present.
psychiatry tape 1990 25
Patients exposed to neurotoxins- usefulness of the MMPI in validation of psychic injury claims Bowler RM The MMPI is a well validated instrument and may be of assistance in court in proving psychic injury claims by neurotoxin exposed workers psychiatry journal 1989 2342
Three patterns of MMPI profiles following neurotoxin exposure Bowler RM Three patterns of MMPI profiles have been found in sixty subjects referred to an occupational health clinic for evaluation following neurotoxin exposure (hydrocarbon solvents, pesticides, methyl bromide, heavy metals, carbon monoxide) These can be characterized as somatoform, depression and anxiety phobia. Specific symptoms are related to each diagnostic category. Workers' compensation law, Social Security disability evaluations and toxic tort litigation are discussed. The usefulness of the MMPI is supported by the findings of this study for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients exposed to neurotoxins. The MMPI as a well validated instrument may also be of assistance in proving psychic injury claims of neurotoxin exposed workers in the court. psychology journal 1989 1653
Violent homicide in two patients with movement disorders King LD Two adolescent males who committed violent homicide are viewed from medical, neurological, psychiatric, psychological and familial social perspectives. Both males exhibit facial tics and one exhibits abnormal vocalizations. The possible relationship to Tourette's Disorder to potential for violence is discussed. psychiatry tapes 1988 59
Where in the diagnostic manual is compensation neurosis? Spitzer R This presentation describes the various options provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders for the diagnosis of these disorders and the condition of Malingering, that must be differentiated from a mental disorder. Using the code for Malingering, a clinician can indicate his or her judgment that an individual's symptoms are intentionally produced, primarily in an effort to obtain compensation, or avoid work. Alternatively, a clinician may note that a request for compensation represents primarily a secondary gain and that there may be underlying psychological conflicts that should be addressed, as in Somatoform Pain Disorder, Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Condition, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Finally, a clinician can indicate that there is severe underlying character pathology by diagnosing Factitious Disorder. Implications for the psychiatrist as expert witness are also addressed.

psychiatry journal 1988 1618
Propranalol-alternative therapy for schizophrenics manifesting chronic violence Schulte JL Psychiatrist at Atascadero an all-male maximum security hospital in California, finds that there is increasing evidence that with acute and chronic schizophrenics exhibiting rage and violent behavior, who are resistant to treatment with known neuroleptics, high doses of propranolol may be useful in the management of chronic assaultiveness related to command hallucinations. psychiatry journal 1986 1602

Villeneuve A Psychiatric interventions, psychotherapy and biological treatments are reviewed. Informed consent in psychiatry and its limitations concerning psychotic patients requiring neuroleptic drug treatment discussed. Relationship between ethics and legal responsibility with respect to treatment is briefly reviewed. psychiatry tapes 1984 902
Contribution of forensic neuropsychology Kurlychek R The ability to document brain impairment is only as good as the diagnostic procedures available. Many instances exist where individuals with bona fide residual impairment of functional capacity are not adequately acknowledged or compensated. Complaints of persons with so-called "minor" head injuries are discounted because no verifiable structural damage is evident upon CT scanning. Legal applications discussed. psychology journal 1984 1685
Neuropsychological evaluation of workers exposed to industrial neurotoxins Kurlychek RT no abstract at this time psychology tape 1984 1293
Psychotropic drugs, informed consent and legal implications Villeneuve A Psychiatric interventions, psychotherapy and biological treatments are reviewed. Informed consent in psychiatry and its limitations concerning psychotic patients requiring neuroleptic drug treatment discussed. Relationship between ethics and legal responsibility with respect to treatment is briefly reviewed. psychiatry tapes 1984 119